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Assets are normally shown at cost price in the balance sheet, and the cost is the basis for all subsequent accounting for the asset.
Everything is recorded in terms of money. Items which cannot be recorded in terms of money are ignored and not included. It follows that the financial statements only give a partial picture of the state of a business.
Profit is the difference between revenue and expenses not cash received and paid. Expenses are matched to revenues, for example if rent has been set as a percentage of sales (a turnover rent), then the rent is accrued in the accounts is the same period as the sales and not when the rent is actually paid.
There are two sides to accounting, one represented by the assets and the other represented by the liabilities against them.
Accounting assumes the business will continue.
For accounting purposes the business is treated as a separate entity from the owner. The accounting records show transactions of the business not the owner.
Profit is earned (realized) at the time the goods or services are passed to the customer and the customer incurs liability for them.
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