# Amortisation

## What is Amortisation?

Amortisation or amortization, is the reduction in value of an intangible asset with a finite useful life over time. Its calculation is similar to that of straight line depreciation for a tangible fixed asset.

Most intangible assets have a limited finite useful life over which the benefit from them will be derived and therefore they need to be amortised over that lifetime.

An estimate of this amortisation is charged to the profit and loss account each accounting period and represents an expense of the business. In effect the expense of the intangible asset has been matched to the benefit derived from the same asset.

Amortisation can also refer to the repayment of the principal and interest on a loan by equal installments.

## How to Calculate Amortisation

If for example, a business has a copyright to publications with a value of 100,000 and expects it to have a useful life of 10 years, then the amortisation would be calculated as follows:

Amortisation = Cost of intangible asset / Useful life

In this example the Amortisation is 100,000 / 10 years = 10,000 per year for the next 10 years.

The true purpose of calculating amortisation is to allow the business to set aside money from its profits in order to be able to replace the intangible asset at the end of its useful life. In the above case, after 10 years, 10 x 10,000 = 100,000 will have been treated as an expense in the income statement as amortisation and placed on the accumulated amortisation account in the balance sheet to remind the business that the funds will be needed to replace the intangible asset in 10 years time.

## Amortisation Journal Entry

Amortisation is calculated at the end of an accounting period and is entered as a journal

Amortisation
Account Debit Credit
Amortisation expense 10,000
Accumulated Amortisation 10,000
Total 10,000 10,000

The first entry is the charge to the profit and loss account as an expense, the second entry is to create a reserve in the balance sheet representing the funds needed to replace the intangible asset over time.

It is important to understand that although the charging of amortisation affects the profits (and therefore the amount attributable to shareholders) of a business, it does not involve the movement of cash. No actual cash is put aside, the amortisation reserve simply reflects that funds will be needed in the future to replace the intangible assets which reduce in value as the benefit received from them is utilised over time.

Amortisation November 6th, 2016

## Related pages

compute gross marginmarkup in accountingmarkup calculationbond amortization schedule exceloverhead volume variance formulasingle entry bookkeeping definitionaccounting for unrealized gains and losseshow to record closing entriesadjusting journal entries accountingrecording depreciation expense journal entrythe double declining balance method of depreciation is used forcost of goods manufactured formulaconsumable suppliesamortised cost calculationaccount receivable entry examplesupplier reconciliation templateowners equity formula12 column ledger bookadjusting entry for unearned revenueconsignee sales agentis interest receivable a current assethow to calculate depreciation of fixed assetsaccounting for vacation accrualproveit practice testscost ledger control accountbook keeping ledgerprepaid expenses in trial balanceaccounting templates excel worksheetshow to work out gp percentagehow to calculate stock splithow to calculate depreciation expense straight line methodfv annuitydividend declaration form templateunpresented chequeaccounting formula cheat sheetrecognition of unearned revenueaccounts receivable debit balanceaccounts payable ledger templatewhat is a contra entry give an examplecontribution margin income statement exampleaged payablesbasic accounting spreadsheetwhat is trial balance why is it preparedmarkup calculator excelleveraged lease accounting examplecapital recieptowners equity accountingexcel annuity calculationdefine fob originimportance of standard costing and understanding variancesjournal entry for accrued salariesdifficult accounting journal entriesaccounting equation worksheet templatehow to calculate beginning finished goods inventorypetty cash fund balance sheetstraight line depreciation with residual valueexamples of bookkeeping ledgersdays of receivables formulabookkeeping reconciliationdays in accounts receivable formulabad debt expense balance sheetannuity immediate formulaaccounting concepts and principlesbookkeeping excel spreadsheetprofitability index calculationdefine utilities expensesteps for accounting cycleaccounting journalizing examplestrial balance of balanceshow to do fifo perpetual inventorydebtors collection period exampleprepayments and accruals double entrycost volume profit formulascontribution margin income statement templatehow to calculate mark upentries for bonds payable and installment note transactionsformula for growing annuityamortisation schedule formulacapital expenditures and revenue expendituresaverage roa