# Present Value of Annuity Due Formula

## Formula

`PV = Pmt x (1 + i) x (1 - 1 / (1 + i)n) / i`
Variables used in the annuity formula
PV = Present Value
Pmt = Periodic payment
i = Discount rate
n = Number of periods

## Use

The present value of annuity due formula shows the value today of series of regular payments. The payments are made at the start of each period for n periods, and a discount rate i is applied.

The formula discounts the value of each payment back to its value at the start of period 1 (present value).

## Excel Function

The Excel PV function can be used instead of the present value of annuity formula, and has the syntax shown below.

`PV(i, n, pmt, FV, type)`

*The FV argument is not used when using the Excel present value of an annuity due function.

## Example Using the Present Value of Annuity Due Formula

If a payment of 6,000 is received at the start of each period for 9 periods, and the discount rate is 6%, then the value of the payments today is given by the present value of annuity due formula as follows:

```PV = Pmt x (1 + i) x (1 - 1 / (1 + i)n) / i
PV = 6,000 x (1 + 6%) x (1 - 1 / (1 + 6%)9) / 6%
PV = 43,258.76
```

The same answer can be obtained using the Excel PV function as follows:

```PV = PV(i, n, pmt,,1)
PV = PV(6%,9,-6000,,1)
PV = 43,258.76
```

The present value of annuity due formula is one of many annuity formulas used in time value of money calculations, discover another at the link below.

Present Value of Annuity Due Formula November 6th, 2016