## Formula

PV = Pmt x (1 + i) x (1 - 1 / (1 + i)^{n}) / i

**Variables used in the annuity formula**

PV = Present Value

Pmt = Periodic payment

i = Discount rate

n = Number of periods

## Use

The present value of annuity due formula shows the value today of series of regular payments. The payments are made at the start of each period for n periods, and a discount rate i is applied.

The formula discounts the value of each payment back to its value at the start of period 1 (present value).

## Excel Function

The Excel PV function can be used instead of the present value of annuity formula, and has the syntax shown below.

PV(i, n, pmt, FV, type)

*The FV argument is not used when using the Excel present value of an annuity due function.

## Example Using the Present Value of Annuity Due Formula

If a payment of 6,000 is received at the start of each period for 9 periods, and the discount rate is 6%, then the value of the payments today is given by the present value of annuity due formula as follows:

PV = Pmt x (1 + i) x (1 - 1 / (1 + i)^{n}) / i PV = 6,000 x (1 + 6%) x (1 - 1 / (1 + 6%)^{9}) / 6% PV = 43,258.76

The same answer can be obtained using the Excel PV function as follows:

PV = PV(i, n, pmt,,1) PV = PV(6%,9,-6000,,1) PV = 43,258.76

The present value of annuity due formula is one of many annuity formulas used in time value of money calculations, discover another at the link below.